Anti-idiotypic antibodies are formed when one antibody binds to an idiotope of another antibody. The idiotype is the variable portion of an antibody that includes the unique antigen-binding site. Each antibody has a unique combination of epitopes within the idiotype (i.e., the idiotopes).
Since most therapeutic monoclonal antibodies made today are humanized, the immunogenic epitopes for anti-drug antibodies (ADA) induction most likely is within the hypervariable complementarity determining regions (CDR), which provide most of the binding contacts.
In some cases, the anti-idiotypic antibodies created binds to a monoclonal antibody.
These highly specialized antibodies are used to perform pharmacokinetic (PK) assays and clinical studies and are also used as positive controls in ADA assays.
Classification of Anti-Idiotype Antibodies
The anti-idiotype antibodies are broadly categorized into three different forms.
Firstly, we have the antigen blocking anti-idiotype antibody. It's called by this name because the targeting antibodies idiotope and paratope overlay one another. As a result, this causes the anti-idiotype antibody and antibody drug's target antigen to compete with one another. Hence, this form of anti-idiotype antibody will only detect free antibody drugs.
Secondly, we have the “non-blocking anti-idiotype.” This is the exact opposite of the blocking anti-idiotype antibody as its antibody drug's idiotope and paratope do not overlap. As a result, the anti-ID antibody and the antigen will bind to the antibody-drug simultaneously without interfering with one binding another's ability. And this has led to the effective use of the non-blocking anti-idiotype antibodies to detect all antibody drugs available (whether free or antigen bound).
And lastly, we have the third as complex specific anti-idiotype. This anti-idiotype only binds to an antibody-drug already bound to its antigen; it doesn't bind otherwise. As a result, this anti-idiotype only detects bound antibody drugs.
Anti-idiotype Antibody Application
- Immunogenicity assays
Immunogenicity assays are essential in developing biological drugs. Conjugated peptides, proteins, oligonucleotides, and antibodies are examples of biotherapeutics that can elicit an immune response in the body, leading to the development of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs).
Anti-idiotypic antibodies (ADAs) are highly specialized ADAs. When testing for ADAs' presence in patient samples, polyclonal anti-idiotype antibodies are frequently used as positive controls.
For this assay, rabbit pAbs are generated and purified. Several monoclonal anti-idiotype antibodies could be combined to create a polyclonal mixture that could be used as a positive control in the ADA.
- Pharmacokinetic (PK) assays
The use of anti-idiotype antibodies is common in pharmacokinetic (PK) assays. These PK assays induce toxicity and dosing at the preclinical and clinical stages when performing an antibody-drug functional assessment.
Because anti-idiotype antibodies (mostly mAbs) are used, it's easy to track and measure the different antibody therapeutics in patients' urine and or other bodily fluids.
How We Can Help with Anti-idiotype Antibody Production
Do you need custom anti-idiotypic antibody services? Green Mountain Antibodies will always remain your best option.
At Green Mountain Antibodies, we offer a broad spectrum of services in the generation of anti-idiotypic antibodies that supports the development of your new monoclonal antibody drugs. At Green Mountain Antibodies, we've got top-of-the-line scientists who employ exclusive technology to ensure the anti-idiotypic antibody's high specificity, including optimal clone selection process, extremely sensitive hybridoma screening, and magic adjuvant and immune mediators.
Our product's quality is never compromised, and we've been able to achieve a 90% success rate of anti-idiotype antibody development for each of our clients. Our scientists are more than able to develop all the available anti-idiotype antibodies tailored to your therapeutic antibodies.
Contact Green Mountain Antibodies for a full range of services to create new monoclonal antibodies or produce antibodies: 802-865-6230.
GMAb offers an extensive line of purified monoclonal antibodies with a particular focus on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. Our products are available for immediate purchase and can be customized to your specific needs, including biotin and fluorescent conjugations.